ID24: Governance in mountain areas
Mountain areas cover an important amount of European surface. To date, however, only a few European countries have promoted the establishment of place-based policies tailored for the development of these unique territories. This session investigates how different European countries, with a consistent portion of mountain territories, approach the topic of sustainable development in the context of mountain areas. The definition of specific new approaches and strategies to interact and communicate with the different stakeholders while overcoming distances, and also the establishment of new and strategic alliances between institutions at different territorial levels, are not easy tasks but are essential to generate results and facilitate the increase in knowledge and awareness required to create a new and modern vision for the future of mountain territories. The territorial dimension is crucial in promoting a coherent place-based development model able to support the sustainable development of mountain areas: how are different countries approaching this challenge? How should they?
Abstract ID 705 | Date: 2022-09-13 16:00 – 16:09 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS2 |
Amado, Alexander; Paül, Valerià; Trillo, Juan Manuel
University of Santiago of Compostela, Spain
Keywords: Borders, Governance, Cbc, Mountain, Pyrenees
European cross-border cooperation (CBC) has played a critical role in overcoming the barrier effect connected to the nation-state boundaries, and has opened new paths to institutionalize innovative territorial projects across borders. In this regard, the Council of Europe impelled CBC by virtue of a legal framework initiated with the Madrid Outline Convention on Trans-Frontier Cooperation (1980), while the European Union has developed a financial support programme since 1989 (Interreg). Moreover, the establishment of an EU legal instrument, the European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) in 2006, has reinforced CBC structures.
Border areas, historically understood as marginal spaces as regards nation-state territories, have become the laboratories for European integration. CBC structures have flourished all along internal and external European borders, and mountains areas are not an exception. Cross-border governance has been the key instrument to managing common problems and challenges in areas belonging to different states, hence, under different legal regulations.
This paper aims to study two specific CBC structures in the Pyrenees: EGTC País d'Art i d'Història Transfronterer Les Valls Catalanes del Tec i del Ter, in the Catalan territorial context (Westernmost Pyrenean isthmus), and Territorio Xareta "Mugarik gabe", in the Basque territorial context (Easternmost Pyrenean isthmus). These are cases located in very specific areas where cultural and linguistic links to the south and north of the Spanish-French border exist, which may help to develop cross-border governance bodies and projects. The study, based on document analysis and fieldwork, mainly through semi-structured interviews, seeks to identify the challenges and opportunities of CBC in some particular areas of the Pyrenees. In this line of thought, it will be crucial to focus on the approaches and strategies developed by local stakeholders in order to overcome the barrier effect of the boundary and to promote an innovative and sustainable territorial development in the Pyrenees.
Abstract ID 629 | Date: 2022-09-13 16:09 – 16:18 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS2 |
Ungureanu, Danut (1,2)
1: Romanian Academy, “Costin C. Kirițescu” National Institute of Economic Research, Center of Mountain Economics – CEMONT, Romania
2: National Agency for the Mountain Area Romania
Keywords: National Agency For The Mountain Area, Mountain Development Centres, Mountain Development Offices, Mountain Area, Delimitation Of The Mountain Area, Mountain Product
The Romanian mountain area covers a third of the country's total area and is a special territory of national interest, with huge economical, social, cultural and environmental potential. This area needs a specific policy, well defined, according to the sustainable development principles and to the European policies.
According to the delimitation established by the joint Order of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development no. 97/2019 and the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration no. 1332/2019, the mountainous area of Romania includes 948 localities (947 UATs and 1 belonging locality): 30 municipalities; 83 cities; 835 communes, classified in 27 counties that have a mountain area, comprising 38.31% of the national territory, and 4,891,145 inhabitants live here, representing 21.97% of the Romanian population.
To this purpose, the National Agency for the Mountain Area has been created (NAMA), according to the provisions of the Mountain Law no. 197/2018 and the Government Decision no. 1036/2018 for the reorganizing and functioning of the National Agency for the Mountain Area, through the restructuring of the Mountain Area Agency, and for the establishing measures concerning the regional centres and offices for mountain development.
The Agency is directly subordinated to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, is located in Vatra Dornei, Suceava county, and also in the mountain territory.
At mountain territory level, there is a number of 7 mountain development regional centres (CRDM) and 32 mountain development offices (ODM), each of them operated by one Agency specialist. Each CRDM has a variable number of ODMs subordinated, in its activity range. Every ODM has a number of settlements assigned to it, for the most part corresponding to two mountain basins.
The main activities are related to professional forming for adults, mountain environment innovation, specialized consultancy services, creating projects for normative acts concerning the socio-economic development and the protection of the mountain area, promoting and authorising the right to use the optional quality term „mountain product", developing specific best practice guides, organizing databases for the mountain area, creating and organizing scientific and cultural events, fairs and exhibitions, representing the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in international organisations (Mountain Partnership, Euromontana, NEMOR, Carpathian Convention).
Abstract ID 410 | Date: 2022-09-13 16:18 – 16:27 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS2 |
National Institute of Advanced Studies, India
Keywords: Himalayas, Indian Himalayan Region (Ihr), National Mission For Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystems (Nmshe), National Environmental Policy (Nep), Mountain Specific Policies, Environment, Mountains
The Himalayas, the highest mountain range of the world, encompass five countries: India, Bhutan, China, Nepal, and Pakistan. India Himalayan Region (IHR) covers approximately 16 percent of the total Indian territory. The Himalayas act as the natural boundary and play a significant role in influencing its climate. IHR spreads over 10 federal states and Union Territories (UT), namely Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and hill regions of 2 states, Assam and West Bengal. IHR is rich in biodiversity and provides ecosystem services to the downstream population. It sustains three major river systems: Ganga, Indus, and Brahmaputra which sustain the Indian population. At the same time, the region faces many environmental threats including climate change, disasters, and extreme weather events, making it an ecologically vulnerable and fragile region. Despite its significance for the country, the Himalayas have remained at the borderline of Indian policy-making which has resulted in making the region more vulnerable. The country follows a sectoral approach towards the region and lacks mountain-specific policies. It has laws, acts, and policies based on different sectors including water, forest, and wildlife. These policies/acts/laws have been participatory in nature owing to the principle of decentralisation. Environmental threats including globalisation and climate change in the mountain ecosystems were first recognised in the National Environment Policy, 2006. In 2008, the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) was adopted. It was the first policy to have the mountain focus through the inclusion of the National Mission for Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystems (NMSHE) as one of the eight missions. Given the complexity of the region, it is imperative for India to have more mountain-specific policies to address distinct territorial challenges of IHR. The study looks at assessing the existing policies in the region, in particular, the NMSHE, and proposes better governance strategies for sustaining the Himalayan region.
Abstract ID 255 | Date: 2022-09-13 16:27 – 16:36 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS2 |
Romero Silva, Valentina
Università IUAV di Venezia, Italy
Keywords: Place-Based Policy, Inner Areas, Multi-Level Governance, Local Institutions, Institutional Capabilities
The aim of this paper would be to inquire how local institutions in mountain areas are capable of leading an integrated territorial project implementation process through comparing two study cases between Italy and France.
This approach is part of a broader debate about researching better policies for marginal places. There is a renovated interest, in Italy and the rest of Europe, from "New mountaineers" (Dematteis, 2011) on repopulate the mountains as well as an interest from public (but not only) initiatives to bring to the center the marginal areas (Carrosio, 2019).
It seems to be generally accepted the multi-governance model propose by the place-based approach «which the responsibility for policy design and implementation is distributed between different levels of government and special-purpose local institutions» (Barca, 2009, pag. 66) as a way of managing local development in mountain fragile areas. Even though, local institutions partly in charge of implementing this kind of policies have different past experiences and capabilities which determinate their performance.
The Italian case-study regards the Bormida Valley project area. It's one of the pilot areas of the recent place-based experimental policy "National Strategy for Inner Areas" (SNAI). It provides some insights on how a background of local partnership impacts over the implementation of the SNAI project.
The second case-study is a cross-border alpine project (ALPi del MEDiterraneo) between France and Italy. In this case, project leaders are on a higher regional/medium level. ALPIMED strategies are oriented to strength governance in a wider cross-border region while SNAI case has a clearer relation with the Europpean Cohesion Policy approach.
The paper will illustrate insights product of a close look at both cases-studies implementation processes, particularly from observing and interacting with the proffesionist in action. It will be possible to parallel the role of the professionals in charge of leading institutions, whose acting like reflective practitioners (Schon, 1984), redirect actions during the implementation process.
Finally, the paper looks to contribute to the cohesion-policy governance through a little analysed perspective: the relevance of individual capabilities of project leaders on strengthening governance networks.
Barca, F. (2009). AN AGENDA FOR A REFORMED COHESION POLICY. Commissione Europea. https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/archive/policy/future/pdf/report_barca_v0306.pdf
Carrosio, G. (2019). I margini al centro: L'Italia delle aree interne tra fragilità e innovazione. Donzelli editore.
Dematteis, G. (2011). Montanari per scelta: Indizi di rinascita nella montagna piemontese. FrancoAngeli.
Schon, D. A. (1984). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think In Action. Basic Books.
Abstract ID 310 | Date: 2022-09-13 16:36 – 16:45 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS2 |
Borec, Andreja; Golc, Jernej
University of Maribor, Slovenia
Keywords: Mountains, Policy, Slovenia
Under Directive 75/268/EEC large part of Slovenia (72.4%) is defined as mountain area. Mountain areas in Slovenia face similar number of challenges related to increasing overgrowing of agricultural land and unfavourable demographic trends and consequently to the reduced competitiveness of agriculture and entrepreneurial initiatives (opportunities) as elsewhere in EU mountains. For the paper proposes the policy and governance for mountain territories was analysed on the national level. Our focus was on the CAP and Cohesion policy programmes and measures. For the CAP (2014-2020-22) the most surprising differences were found for the measure M4 where supported investments in mountain areas was twice as low as the average value of investments in the lowland. In the implementation of sub-measure 4.1 of the Rural Development Program (RDP) 2014-2020, only 32% of funds were approved in the mountain area, despite the fact that mountain areas represent 72.4% of the total Slovenian territory. For the most RDP measures also low share of funds allocated to mountain territories were noticed. Only the measure 13.1-Payment of compensation in mountain areas, as fully intended measure for mountain areas, was payed off for 95%.
For the Cohesion policy in the period 2014-2020-22, Slovenia is divided into the Eastern and Western Cohesion Regions whereby the western region, with the higher share of mountain territories is eligible for a lower share of funds. Detailed review of tenders for programming period (2014-20) and projects applications revealed low number of projects and founds associated exclusively to mountain territories.
Among mountain initiatives the AC (Alpine Convention) is the only that is really active. It has a long track record, much better experience in raising external (EU and internal (national) funds as else in mountains. (Borec, A., 2019).
By analysing mountain policy, we face the general lack of analytical data. In previous papers (Borec, 2021 very few funded national scientific projects related particular to mountains were established. The situation is similar by published work in Slovenia between 2004-2020 (Borec, 2021).
In general, mountain strategies and actions in Slovenia are somehow neglected. Criticism based on opinion that the situation could be much better, if the mountains on national level would get more general attention and public validity and/or to be perceived as independent discipline or branch with good analytics behind (Borec, 2021).
Abstract ID 332 | Date: 2022-09-13 16:45 – 16:54 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS2 |
Bråtå, Hans Olav; Tholstrup, Line Marie
Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway
Keywords: Planning, Shrinking Municipalities, Sustainability
Many rural municipalities have a shrinking population, an increased share of elderly and a decreasing share of young people. This is also frequent in mountain municipalities. Shrinkage causes economic problems and a need to reduce (adjust) public services or centralise them within the municipality. This is painful to local communities. Another issue is over-investments, based on the illusion of a population growth that does not come. This often accelerate economic problems.
The actions of the municipalities are typically "fire-fighting" due to no long-term plans having shrinkage as a point of departure. They do also have problems because the administration is often small and occupied with mandatory duties, leaving less room for planned development following new paths. Municipal master planning is generally based on the wish for growth, fronted by the politicians, despite that local administration often looks for another approach, such as a planned degrowth. Degrowth does not mean no development, but is an approach emphasizing other aspects than growth, such as the good life and sustainability.
Such an approach is challenged by several issues, amongst others how the municipalities and the inhabitants view themselves and rurality. Planning in general is based on urban values, concepts and growth, and an urban view on sustainable development. Planning in rural areas is imprinted by the same approach, the urban questions related to sustainable development and the urban answers. An example is to centralise and concentrate built-up areas to reduce transport and emissions. This may be against the aspects favouring the rural life and the broader spectre of sustainability issues.
Rural planning for shrinkage may therefore need to view the world from the rural point of view and define it on its own terms, and not solely as the contrast to urbanity and growth. A first step is to define rurality – from a rural point of view. Subsequently to develop planning having shrinkage as point of view and how that approach may lead to a planning for degrowth based on the broad aspects of sustainability and the good life in e.g. the mountains.
There are hardly any examples of such broad planning approaches, but several pieces to the puzzle exist in the literature and in practical planning. We will arrange them in a way that hopefully increase the understanding and the possibility to develop a long-term planning based on shrinkage that advance suitability and a good life in the mountains.
Abstract ID 391 | Date: 2022-09-13 16:54 – 17:03 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS2 |
Zaccaria, Elisabetta (1); Dax, Thomas (2); Savino, Michelangelo (1)
1: University of Padova, Italy
2: Federal Institute of Agricultural Economics, Rural and Mountain Research (BAB), Vienna, Austria
Keywords: Levels Of Governance, Sustainable Development Strategies, Socio-Cultural Dynamics, Demographic Decline
In a period of spatial uneven development, many mountain regions experience demographic challenges with out-migration of young people, brain drain and ageing population structure. This implies severe negative outcomes not just on socio-economic performance, but also on human-nature relationship. A thorough investigation of spatial developments requires a close, place-sensitive assessment of local and regional changes, strategies and planning efforts to cope with the harmful "downward-spiralling" processes observed in a number of mountain contexts.
This presentation draws from a study for the province of Belluno, Italy, which has been supplemented by observations from policy processes and current activities in the Austrian mountain region of East-Tyrol. The province includes an active LEADER region, the LAG Alto Bellunese, which is characterised by complex demographic, economic, environmental and cultural dynamics. Here, the on-going, predominantly urban-centred regional development approaches generate dependence, aggravating perceptions of remoteness and marginalization. However, as is explored in recently emerging discussions, the conditions of lagging behind also offers the opportunity to experiment different local action approaches, oriented at a new balance between humans and nature.
The revitalisation of this mountain region depends on effective regional strategies. Therefore, the presentation will report results from the survey of other Alpine contexts where innovative practices have already been experimented. These summary findings can provide useful hints for rethinking local governance approaches and show conclusions for planning new strategies aiming at guaranteeing the safeguard of ecosystem services, the protection and valorisation of the territory and the preservation of the local intangible heritage in the study area. The rationale for changing the scope of regional activities was inspired by analysis from the regional development actors and LEADER implementation in Eastern Tyrol.
This enabled to outline possible strategies for new sustainable development pathways for the area of Belluno Dolomites. In this adaptation adequate levels of governance have to be addressed that can successfully drive European and national resources. Moreover, a cross-sectoral reorganisation of the settlement system, welfare approaches and governance system are esteemed crucial to support the functional, cultural and economic interdependencies at the supra-municipal level. Such changes are very challenging and need a 'cultural transformation' to enhance local participation, collaboration and cooperation in a long-term vision, thus triggering the co-design of new boundaries and levels of governance.
Abstract ID 436 | Date: 2022-09-13 17:03 – 17:12 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS2 |
Besier, Johanna Franziska; Mann, Stefan
Keywords: Transdisciplinary, Governance, Virtual, Mountain Farming
Mountain farming is not an academic exercise, but benefits from a transdisciplinary collaboration between practitioners with their vast experience and researchers. Therefore, the Swiss Federal Council delivered a landmark decision end 2018, ruling that the Swiss Federal Centre of Excellence for Agricultural Research would in future consist of central headquarters in Posieux (canton of Fribourg), two regional research centers in Changins and Reckenholz (cantons of Vaud and Zurich), as well as 14 experimental stations (satellites). This article introduces the 'Alpine and Mountain Farming' Experimental Station, which has begun its research activities in 2021.
Agroscope established the 'Alpine and Mountain Farming' Experimental Station in partnership with the cantons of Bern, Grisons, Ticino, Uri and Valais as well as with the consulting organization Agridea. The practice-oriented research activities of this experimental station were defined in a project-oriented manner. The cantons participating in the experimental station provide the cross-cantonal network of experimental plots and farms necessary for the experiments and projects. Additionally, they contribute their existing infrastructure (including livestock herds), and support trials and projects on a technical level. Agroscope is responsible for the design of the research projects and for the scientific support and evaluation of the trials. Knowledge transfer is conducted jointly with all partners, in particular via Agridea and the cantonal education organizations as well as via the sector.
The added-value of the experimental and farm network is created by the investigation and answering of alpine and mountain farming questions throughout the alpine region, with inter alia structural, organizational, economic and climatic factors which differ between the cantons being taken into account. Hence, the network is also accorded a high importance from the point of view of research, and forms the basis for the development of applied research into a topic of exceptional relevance for the Swiss agricultural sector. Yet, the network ensures the inclusion of all important partners over the entire alpine region.
The cantons have prioritized site-adapted management for changing climatic conditions, dairy technology, farm management and social matters the topics for the start of the experimental station's research activities. The research will physically take place at current Agroscope sites, so that the new governance approach is a virtual one from a geographic perspective.
Our presentation shows strengths and weaknesses of this new institutional setting and reports first experiences from the first months of the experimental station.