ID40: Mountain horticultural agrobiodiversity
Landraces are traditional cultivated plants, locally adapted, often under threat of disappearing. Horticultural plants require attention for their abundance but also vulnerability: a significant number of unknown landraces still exist in farms in hilly territories. Isolation has been in this case an advantage because these are the places where the most of agrobiodiversity could be preserved. The landraces could then represent quality food chains for mountain communities, although historically cultivated, they could be rediscovered and represent new and innovative solutions to environmentally friendly agriculture and supporting human health, contributing to a varied and more sustainable diet. The focus session aims to: Improve the knowledge basis to understand what agrobiodiversity is and why it is important how to inventory and describe mountain horticultural agrobiodiversity landraces for mountains development: study cases of community based and participatory approach management of agrobiodiversity Promotion of marketing niches based on landraces.
Abstract ID 690 | Date: 2022-09-13 17:45 – 18:00 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden |
Benítez, Guillermo (1,2); Romero-Molina, José Miguel (2); González-Tejero, M. Reyes (2); Joaquín, Molero-Mesa (2); Ángela, Mesa-Pedrazas (1); Álvaro, Ibáñez-Jiménez (1); Yolanda, Jiménez-Olivencia (1,3)
1: Institute for Regional Development, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.
2: Department of Botany, Campus Universitario de Cartuja, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.
3: Department of Physical Geography, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.
Keywords: Agrobiodiversity, Local Varieties, Crops, Horticulture
Mountains hold an extensive biocultural heritage related to the construction, throughout history, of complex and resilient socio-ecological systems. These socio-ecological systems are strongly linked to agrodiversity, livestock farming and forestry activities, and are home to an important component of biological diversity. In parallel, local knowledge and culture constitute a substantial part of the heritage associated with traditional land uses, and environment management. The need to conserve and restore agrobiodiversity, in addition to contributing to biodiversity and the planet's food security, is also seen as a great opportunity in the search for solutions to overcome the low rates of economic development in rural mountain areas.
This accumulated heritage is now seriously threatened, according to FAO data on the decline of plant species on farms. Moreover, in these areas, depopulation and the abandonment of land and agricultural uses and practices is the main vector for the transformation and simplification of agrosystems.
As part of the Life Whatch Eric Sierra Nevada project, we are working on the topic "Agrobiodiversity and social and technological innovation as drivers of development for local mountain communities". The study area, the Alpujarra valley in Sierra Nevada, Granada, Spain, is one of the most biodiverse regions in Europe, with a long and important agricultural tradition and a complex socio-cultural reality. One of the most important tasks for the project is the creation of a comprehensive catalogue of traditional crop varieties, linked to a free and public seed bank that aims to promote the knowledge, cultivation and consumption of these varieties, as well as their conservation both in situ and ex situ (germplasm bank). In addition, inventories of agricultural biodiversity are being developed, taking into account the different cultivation techniques found in the study area. In this communication we present the results on the agrobiodiversity with regard to the traditional varieties of vegetables and fruit and nut crop species, as well as the studied lines in order to promote their knowledge and use in both family orchards, and commercial cultures.
Abstract ID 526 | Date: 2022-09-13 18:00 – 18:15 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden |
Mesa-Pedrazas, Ángela (1); Jiménez-Olivencia, Yolanda (1,2); Duque-Calvache, Ricardo (3); Ibáñez-Jiménez, Álvaro (1); Benítez, Guillermo (1,4); González-Tejero, M. Reyes (4); Molero-Mesa, Joaquín (4)
1: Institute for Regional Development, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2: Department of Physical Geography, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.
3: Department of Sociology, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
4: Department of Botany, Campus Universitario de Cartuja, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Keywords: Agrobiodiversity, Local Development, Alternative Food Networks
Rural mountain communities face many challenges, such as depopulation and lack of social cohesion, touristification and loss of competitiveness in a global market; social innovation is one of the most powerful tools to address them. A key resource for overcoming these challenges is the community's own agri-food resources. In our work, located in the Alpujarra of Granada, we are carrying out in-depth work on local varieties in their double dimension: botanical and social. In our work, located in the Alpujarra of Granada, we are carrying out in-depth work on local varieties in their double dimension: botanical and social. In this second dimension, we start from the idea of agrobiodiversity as a basis for food sovereignty and sustainable development; and our aim is to find answers to overcome the difficulties mentioned above through it. Firstly, we have carried out a review of projects in Europe for agro-food development through Alternative Food Networks (AFN) to discover their success factors and transferability to the Alpujarra community. Moreover, we are implementing a programme of interviews with farmers, traders, hoteliers, AFN members and experts to assess the possibilities of implementing such an initiative. In addition, we have designed a social media dissemination plan and a series of participatory meetings to help create a resilient community. With this strategy we want to provide the population with a series of knowledge and tools so that they can develop new ways of production and commercialisation under the principles of the conservation of agrobiodiversity and the promotion of associative and local production and consumption. This work is part of Smart EcoMountains, the Mountain Thematic Center of LifeWatch-ERIC.
Abstract ID 205 | Date: 2022-09-13 18:15 – 18:18 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden |
Chia, Genevieve Kain (1); Nouck, Alphonse Erve (2); Tonjock, Rosemary (3)
1: THE UNIVERSITY OF BAMENDA
2: THE UNIVERSITY OF BAMENDA
3: THE UNIVERSITY OF BAMENDA
Keywords: Biofertilizers, Biochemical Constituents, Capsicum Annuum, Phosphorous, Salinity
Soil salinity is the main abiotic stress that limits productivity in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are considered as bio-ameliorators of salinity tolerance in plants. The effect of phosphorous application and arbuscular mycorrizal inoculation was investigated on growth parameters (number of leaves, leaf surface area, stem height and noose diameter), ionic distribution, chlorophyll content, biochemical constituents and non-enzymatic antioxidants on Capsicum annuum L. (green pepper) in a greenhouse for a period of six weeks under different salt conditions. Plants were subjected to four levels of salinity (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl). They were grouped into five blocks (treatments) with four replications per block. Seedlings in the first block were subjected to NaCl only, those in the second block were treated with combined application of NaCl and phosphorous, the third and fourth block were inoculated with 25 g of Bio1 [(Gigaspora margarita and Acaulospora tuberculate)] and 25 g of Bio2 (Scutellospora gregaria) with 1g of phosphorous in each. The fifth treatment was subjected to 1g of phosphorous and inoculated with 25 g mixture of Bio (1+2). Results of the treatment with NaCl only, showed that, growth parameters, ionic distribution, chlorophyll content biochemical constituents and non-enzymatic antioxidants reduced significantly (P < 0.001) with increased levels of salinity. Treatment with phosphorous at different NaCl concentrations increased the growth parameters, ionic distribution, chlorophyll content, biochemical constituents and non-enzymatic antioxidants with increased in NaCl concentration when compared to the treatment with NaCl only. For the treatment with arbuscular mycorrhiza, there was a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the rate of growth parameters, ionic distribution (K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) chlorophyll content, biochemical constituents and non-enzymatic antioxidants with increased concentration of NaCl when compared with treatments without biofertilizers. Therefore, combined application of phosphorous and Bio1 (Gigaspora margarita and Acaulospora tuberculate) should be used by farmers in the Littoral, arid and semi-arid regions in order to improve productivity and yield of green pepper;
Abstract ID 161 | Date: 2022-09-13 18:18 – 18:21 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden |
Sama, Nsah Francoline (1); Kinge, Tonjock Rosemary (2); Annih, Mbong Grace (3)
1: The University of Bamenda, Cameroon.
2: The University of Bamenda, Cameroon.
3: University of Dschang, Cameroon
Keywords: Cabbage Disease, Incidence, Altitude, Prevalence And Severity.
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) belongs to the family of Brassicaceace. Cabbage is useful to man and animals and is consumed more as food prepared in different ways before eating. Cabbage has a composition of useful nutrients important to our body. These nutrients include calories, proteins, fibers, vitamin k, folate, manganese, calcium, potassium and magnesium which can be altered when cabbage is attack by pathogens. Despite the importance of cabbage to the Santa's population, the yield of the cabbage instead of increasing keeps reducing as results of root and foliar disease that affect the cabbage. The aim of this work was to assess the root and foliar disease that affect cabbage production in Santa by looking at the prevalence, severity and pathogens responsible for diseases in cabbages in Santa. A total of 21 farms in Santa were randomly selected both in lower and upper altitude with sizes ranging from half a hectare and above. The disease prevalence was done by looking at farms with disease symptoms and comparing with the total number of selected farms for studies. The disease incidence was assessed after every 4 days starting from the first appearance of the disease in the field. The disease severity was studied using a disease scale and the pathogens causing cabbage diseases in Santa were isolated using Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Nutrient Agar (NA) at The University of Buea Life Science Laboratory. The results showed that all the farms had infected cabbages which meant that the prevalence was 100%, the incidence of the disease both in the upper and lower altitudes showed that a total of 2400 cabbages were infected out of 13608 cabbages sampled giving 17.64% infection level. The diseases on cabbage were more severe in the upper altitude than the lower altitude. The results from PDA showed that cabbage disease in the farms were cabbage Yellow, ring spot, black leg, leaf decay in Santa are caused by Fusarium oxysporium, Alternaria brassicae, Leptospaeria maculans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae respectively and the diseases obtained from NA leaf decay, black rot, clubroot, angular leaf spot are caused by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Xanthosoma campestris, Plamodiophora brassicae and Pesudocercospora grisela respectively. The research showed that there was more level of cabbage infections in the upper altitude as than the lower altitude. Conclusively it was observed on the field that fungi diseases are more severe in the fields than bacteria diseases.
Abstract ID 202 | Date: 2022-09-13 18:21 – 18:24 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden |
Ghidoli, Martina (1); Giupponi, Luca (2); Leoni, Valeria (2); Pedrali, Davide (2); Zuccolo, Marco (2); Giorgi, Anna (2); Pilu, Roberto (1)
1: Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences – Production, Landscape, Agroenergy, University of Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano, Italy
2: Centre of Applied Studies for the Sustainable Management and Protection of Mountain Areas-CRC Ge.S.Di.Mont, University of Milan, Via Morino 8, Edolo, 25048, Italy
Keywords: Pgrfa, Agrobiodiversity, Landraces, Mountain Environment, Bean
The biodiversity conservation is one of the most debated issues in recent years from the local to the global level.
The loss of biodiversity does not only concern wild species, but also species, varieties and races of agricultural and food interest (agrobiodiversity), which have been subjected to processes of domestication and selection since the birth of agriculture.
This loss affects the food and traditions that identify the territories, in particular in the mountain areas where the added value in terms of economic and historical-cultural wealth is decreasing more and more.
Bean (Phaseolus spp.) is one of the most cultivated legumes for direct human consumption, due to the protein content (about 20%), starch with low glycemic index (about 38%), B vitamins, molecules with antioxidant power, minerals, lipids (about 3%, mainly made up of polyunsaturated fatty acids). However, some varieties have a non-negligible content of anti-nutritional factors (phytates, inhibitors of digestive enzymes and hemagglutinins) which are reduced by pre-cooking treatments (such as soaking in water) and cooking.
Beans are traditionally consumed as a source of protein instead of meat in countries in poorer rural and marginal areas. In fact, the bean has been for centuries one of the fundamental foods of the peasant world, including that of Lombardy region (Northern Italy). With the industrial development, the consumption of beans has undergone a contraction. The demand for legumes has varied due to the change in food styles, the smaller number of small-sized farms (those traditionally dedicated to these productions) and the overall decrease in land for agricultural crops. Nowadays, there has been a renewed interest in beans from consumers residing in northern Italy. It was mainly the local varieties (landraces) that attracted the attention of consumers.
In this work, 30 different bean landraces cultivated in Lombardy were collected and studied for promotion and conservation plant biodiversity on the farm as it is aimed at the study and enhancement of little or no-known bean cultivars (not present on the market) now grown/preserved by a few farmers, therefore a risk of extinction. The landraces were characterized by SSRs to assess the genetic structure and to assist future breeding programs. This study will contribute to the research, characterization, promotion and conservation of PGRFA (Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture).
Abstract ID 201 | Date: 2022-09-13 18:24 – 18:27 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden |
Ghidoli, Martina (1); Licheri, Giovanni Luca (1); Franguelli, Nicolò (1); Colombo, Federico (1); Dell'Anno, Matteo (2); Rossi, Luciana (2); Giupponi, Luca (3); Pilu, Roberto (1)
1: Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences – Production, Landscape, Agroenergy, University of Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano, Italy
2: Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Milano, Via Dell'Università 6, 26900 Lodi, Italy
3: Centre of Applied Studies for the Sustainable Management and Protection of Mountain Areas-CRC Ge.S.Di.Mont, University of Milan, Via Morino 8, Edolo, 25048, Italy
Keywords: Pgrfa, Agrobiodiversity, Terraced Environment, Rye, Wheat
The SOCIAAALP (Reti Sociali per Agroambienti Alpini) project granted by CARIPLO foundation represents a social innovation project and identifies in the terraced landscape and in the quality, diversified local productions, with low environmental impact (organic and low input crops) a fundamental driver for relaunching the agricultural sector of mountain valleys in a multifunctional and inclusive perspective, inserting it in the recovery and enhancement path.
In the Alpine region, characterized by steep slopes, the terraced systems supported by dry stone walls represent a traditional technique, widely used in the past, which allowed the creation of arable areas.
The project is part of this context with the aim of restoring the functionality of some terraces located in some localities of the Antrona valley. Part of the terraces has been restored in order to start profitable crops to strengthen the bond between local communities, their works and the alpine environment. Rye and wheat were reintroduced with the aim to preserve the PGRFA (Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture). In this frame, this reintroduction is aimed at resuming the historic rye bread supply chain that had been abandoned several years ago.
Rye bread is a type of bread made with different proportions of rye/wheat flour. Rye bread was considered a staple through the Middle Ages and in mountain areas the use of rye bread was a tradition until the beginning of the second half of the last century when it was abandoned following the depopulation of the mountain areas. In recent years, a renewed interest in this product has been growing due to the nutritional properties of rye flour.
In this project, the best rye and wheat varieties were cultivated in randomized block designs in the Antrona valley terraced environment. Bromatological analyses were also carried out on flour collected for each variety. Adaptation to climate change is a very difficult breeding goal because of its complexity, its location specificity, and unpredictability. However, one possible solution on a small scale is based on the dynamic use of agrobiodiversity in agriculture through the cultivation of evolutionary populations. In fact, in this work pure line, mixed and populations were used.
Abstract ID 614 | Date: 2022-09-13 18:27 – 18:30 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden |
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DELHI (IIT-D), British Indian Ocean Territory (United Kingdom)
Keywords: Value-Chains, Agricultural Markets And Marketing, Intermediaries, Agricultural Finance And Credit, Farmers Income
Since independence in 1947, farm income in India has not grown in the same proportion as food production. Average income of the farmer household was INR 70 per day in 2003 and about INR 101 a day during 2011-12 (Situation Assessment Survey 2003, 2013). In this paper, I focus on two supply-side factors responsible for farmers' exploitation- dependence on intermediaries, and lack of market accessibility due to poor infrastructure. I analyse the supply chain of stone-fruits in Uttarakhand, a hill state in northern India. Uttarakhand is the leading producer of stone-fruits (peach, plum, apricot and pear) in India. I use original survey data constructed from a primary survey in Nainital district of Uttarakhand by interviewing 200 farmers from 20 mountain villages. Traders in the hub-markets of Haldwani and Delhi and other value-chain actors like transporters have also been interviewed. The main objective is to trace the supply-chain of stone-fruits and analyse the distribution of profits along this chain, while accounting for the topography of the hills and how it affects farmers' incomes and dependence on intermediaries.
The study finds that high post-harvest marketing cost coupled with poor infrastructure and information asymmetry helps traders in wielding power over the farmers. Rich farmers fare relatively well compared to their smaller counterparts. This is primarily due to the dependence of small farmers on the traders for credit. Small farmers enter into informal contracts with traders who provide them with help- both in cash (for agricultural and non- agricultural activities) and in-kind (in the form of agricultural inputs, or ration to feed the family during slack season). In lieu of this, farmers are bound to sell their harvest to the traders. Also, because these traders deal in bulk and help the farmers dispense-off their produce quickly in the absence of storage amenities, farmers prefer to deal with them over other marketing channels, even if this implies additional cost in the form of the commissions of traders. The study also finds that mountain farmers prefer to deal with a few intermediaries, choosing them on the basis of old-ties and social relationships. This study can be seen as an addition to the literature on the supply-chains of horticultural commodities indigenous to mountain regions, which remain relatively understudied. It also contributes to the literature on intermediaries in agricultural markets and finds that in the absence of sound infrastructure in mountainous regions, intermediaries become indispensable to the farmers.