ID48: Obtaining and integrating interdisciplinary mountain data
Mountain data collection and modelling efforts are still often conducted in narrow disciplinary silos and short-term projects. Systematically gathered and comprehensive long-term data are scarce, with socio-economic data often especially lacking. Consequently, key interactions and feedbacks operating across mountain socio-ecological systems may remain poorly understood and/or represented in models. We encourage contributions that, a priori, take highly interdisciplinary/holistic and/or long-term approaches to (in situ and/or remotely sensed) data collection, collation, or integration across spatial and elevational gradients, and modelling studies that capitalize on a broad range of observations to deliver improved decision-relevant predictions. Pathways towards sustainably and permanently obtaining Standard Observations / Essential Mountain Variables, ideally following open science principles, should be explored (e.g. the emerging eLTER RI). We anticipate a rich discussion on the challenges of working across traditional disciplinary and methodological boundaries.
Abstract ID 620 | Date: 2022-09-12 10:00 – 10:12 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS3
Augustin, Hannah (1); Weber, Helga (2); Sudmanns, Martin (1); Neuhaus, Christoph (2); Wunderle, Stefan (2); Tiede, Dirk (1)
1: Department of Geoinformatics – Z_GIS, University of Salzburg, Austria
2: Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research and Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Switzerland
Keywords: Avhrr, Sentinel-3, Essential Climate Variables, Semantic Enrichment, Earth Observation Data Cube
The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is a sensor that has been collecting imagery on multiple satellite platforms since the 1980s, which means its total archive exceeds the 30 years required for climate-relevant analysis. Until now, AVHRR imagery and derived information products have only been accessible via file-based access, requiring a significant time investment and expert knowledge to access and find relevant data for analysis. We have implemented a semantic Earth observation (EO) data cube using a curated subset of AVHRR imagery from the University of Bern and derived information along with Copernicus Sentinel-3 imagery, with the intention of complementing and expanding the heritage AVHRR time-series. A semantic EO data cube refers to a spatio-temporal EO data cube, where for each observation at least one nominal (i.e. categorical) interpretation is available and can be queried in the same instance. It eases spatio-temporal analysis of big EO imagery while also adding a semantic dimension to every pixel-based observation. The geographic focus of this prototypical implementation covers the COSMO-1 extent, which includes the entire European Alpine region.
Three essential climate variables (ECVs) and sub-symbolic semantic enrichment have been derived from AVHRR and Sentinel-3 imagery and included. ECVs critically contribute to the characterisation of Earth's climate system's state, interactions and developments. Remote sensing scientists at the University of Bern derived vegetation dynamics using the normalized difference vegetation index, snow cover extent and lake surface water temperature from the curated time-series from 1981 through 2020. Automated knowledge-based semantic enrichment has been applied to AVHRR imagery from 2016 through 2020 and Sentinel-3 imagery. These stable, generic, pixel-based multi-spectral "colours" (i.e. sensor-independent regions of a multi-spectral feature space) are not land cover classes, but can be considered one property of an object or land cover type. Paired with the temporal analysis that data cubes make possible, these "colours" can be used in a convergence-of-evidence approach as the basis for building a diversity of land cover classes because they are independent from any defined ontology, application or sensor. Based on the existing Sen2Cube.at infrastructure developed by the EO Analytics research group at the University of Salzburg, it is now possible to conduct ad-hoc analysis for any user-defined area or timespan using these ECVs, imagery, derived information and a digital elevation model for the entire European Alpine region. Such an implementation can be augmented with additional data, and may be useful for research in the mountain domain.
Abstract ID 463 | Date: 2022-09-12 10:12 – 10:24 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS3
Huggel, Christian (1); Niggli, Laura (1); Adler, Carolina (2); Allen, Simon K. (1); Bhatt, Indra D. (3); Chakraborty, Ritodhi (4); Drenkhan, Fabian (1,5); Marchant, Robert (6); Morin, Sanuel (7); Ochoa, Ana (8); Postigo, Julio (9); Razanatsoa, Estelle (10); Rudloff, Valeria (11); Cuni Sanchez, Aida (6); Stone, Dáithí (12); Thorn, Jessica (6); Viviroli, Daniel (1)
1: University of Zurich, Switzerland
2: Mountain Research Initiative, Switzerland
3: G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, India
4: Lincoln University, New Zealand
5: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Peru
6: University of York, UK
7: Météo-France – CNRS, France
8: University of Azuay, Cuenca, Ecuador
9: Indiana University Bloomington, USA
10: University of Cape Town, South Africa
11: Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Chile
12: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand
Keywords: Detection, Attribution, Anthropogenic Climate Change, Plural Knowledge Systems
Mountains are sentinels of climate change, and their ecosystems and people are among the particularly affected ones. However, so far, a comprehensive overview of the extent to which environmental and human systems in mountain regions have been affected by recent anthropogenic climate change has been missing. This information, however, is crucial to a better understanding of the implications, rate and scale of climate change in mountains, and to the design of adaptation strategies that consider that diversity of social, physical and ecological systems in the world's mountains.
Here we report on an unprecedented effort undertaken in the framework of the 6th Assessment Report of the IPCC to detect observed impacts of climate change in mountains regions across all continents and to attribute them to anthropogenic climate change. We applied an extensive review of peer-reviewed and grey literature and identified more than 300 samples of impacts (aggregate and case studies). The role of anthropogenic climate change is evaluated against different drivers of change, using multiple lines of evidence, including data from several gridded observational climate products and global climate models, documented behavior of natural and human systems, local knowledge and system understanding.
We show that a wide range of natural and human systems in mountains have been affected by climate change, including the cryosphere, the water cycle and water resources, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, energy production, infrastructure, agriculture, health, migration, tourism, community and cultural values and disasters. Our assessment documents that climate change impacts are observed in mountain regions on all continents. We find that anthropogenic climate change has a clear and discernable fingerprint in changing natural and human mountain systems across the globe. In the cryosphere, ecosystems, water resources and tourism the contribution of anthropogenic climate change to observed changes is significant, showing the sensitivity of these systems to current and future climate change.
We highlight the inclusion of a substantial number of place-based insights from local/indigenous communities representing important alternative worldviews. In fact, our analysis reveals the need to consider the plurality of knowledge systems through which climate change impacts are being understood in mountain regions. Such attempts at inclusivity, which addresses issues of representation and justice, should be deemed necessary in exploring climate change impacts.
Abstract ID 707 | Date: 2022-09-12 10:24 – 10:36 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS3
Frei, Esther R. (1,2,3); Krumm, Frank (1,2,3); Bottero, Alessandra (1,2,3); Kempel, Anne (1,2); Rixen, Christian (1,2); Bebi, Peter (1,2)
1: WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Davos, Switzerland
2: Climate Change, Extremes and Natural Hazards in Alpine Regions Research Centre CERC, Davos, Switzerland
3: Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland
Keywords: Elter, High Elevation Afforestation, Long-Term Monitoring, Protection Forest
The catastrophic avalanche winter of 1950/51 devastated large areas of protection forests in Switzerland leading to discussions about causes and suitable measures to prevent future damages. With the initiation of an interdisciplinary mountain research program by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, scientific activities began at the Stillberg – the 'silent mountain' as the German location translates – near Davos, Switzerland in the Central Alps in 1955. This research facility is located in the treeline ecotone on a northeast-facing slope, featuring topographically highly structured terrain and spanning an elevational gradient of 2075 to 2230 m a.s.l.. As a site belonging to the European Long-term Ecosystem Research (eLTER) network, the infrastructure of the research site includes an automatic weather station, a research station with living facilities and a cable car. Initially, the research aimed at developing ecologically, technically and economically sustainable reforestation techniques at the treeline to reduce the risk of snow avalanches. In the course of time, additional research aspects gained importance, such as the ecology of the treeline ecotone and climate change impacts on alpine ecosystems.
After a series of observational studies and pre-experiments, the main experiment was established in 1975 by the plantation of 92'000 seedlings of Larix decidua, Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, and Pinus cembra following a gridded planting scheme. Trees were planted in >4000 square plots, with 25 trees in each plot placed into the original dwarf shrub community. Survival, growth and damage of trees was intensely monitored. In addition, various other ecological experiments have been carried out at the Stillberg research site, such as a study combining free-air carbon dioxide enrichment with soil warming and a nutrient addition study. More recently, we also investigated plant-snow interactions, plant-soil interactions and community shifts under experimental warming as well as drivers of tree seedling recruitment in this treeline ecotone.
In almost five-decades of research at the eLTER site Stillberg, we have collected a wealth of data that can contribute to transdisciplinary and global syntheses improving the understanding of ecosystem processes and climate change impacts in mountain regions.
Abstract ID 375 | Date: 2022-09-12 10:36 – 10:48 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS3
European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Italy
Keywords: Earth Observation, Long Term Modelling, Policy Impact, Geo Mountain
Mountains socio-ecological research is notoriously hampered by scarcity of socio-economic data. However, new and updated fine scale continental and global built-up map and population density maps are now available for the mountain research and practitioner community. The new releases include the European Settlement Map (ESM) and the 2022 release of the Global Human Settlement Layer Built Up Surface (GHS-BU) and Population (GHS-POP) density maps. The ESM is a 2×2 m spatial resolution building map generated for 39 European countries including Turkey. It covers the epoch 2012 and 2018 and thus allows quantifying the change in the building stock between the two epochs. The ESM is produced based on very high spatial resolution satellite imagery from a mix of sensors acquired through the European Copernicus program and a combination of ancillary datasets including land use. The ESM distinguishes between residential and non residential buildings. The ESM map is well suited to study and quantify the presence of buildings in small settlements typical of mountain areas. The ESM built up map will be combined with population data from censuses to provide insights on depopulation in the more marginal mountain areas of Europe as well as to assess the growth of buildings and infrastructure in the municipality with higher rate of development.
The 2022 release of the GHS-BU is a multi-temporal set of global maps updated to 2018. The 2018 GHS-BU epoch is produced using Copernicus Sentinel data and released at spatial resolution of 10 x 10m, 100 x 100 m and 1 x 1 km grid cell size. The 2018 epoch GHS-BU distinguishes between residential and non-residential buildings. The 2022 release also includes the 2022 GHS-POP based on 2018 global population estimates. All multi-temporal GHS-BU Surface and GHS Pop dating back to 1975 are re-processed to match the spatial resolution of the 2018 epoch.
Both the ESM and the 2022 release of the GHS-BU and GHS POP are suited to assess exposure- and change in exposure – to natural hazards, to assess accessibility and cost of transport. The data have been used as a spatial infrastructure to model societal impact on protected areas and on ecosystem services. The datasets will be available as open source, and feedback from the mountain community of researcher and practitioners will be welcome to understand the interest for this information and the need for future map updates.
Abstract ID 195 | Date: 2022-09-12 10:48 – 11:00 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS3
Stephan, Ruth; Stahl, Kerstin
Environmental Hydrological Systems, University of Freiburg, Germany
Keywords: Drought, Impacts, Model Predictions, Alpine Monitoring
Across Europe's generally water-rich Alpine region the number of reports on negative drought impacts increased. They call for a more targeted transnational drought monitoring that goes beyond conventional climate and water monitoring. Therefore, the Alpine Space project "Alpine Drought Observatory (ADO)" develops an online monitoring platform across the European Alps to improve current drought monitoring, preparedness and adaptation. The ADO provides homogenized hydrological, meteorological, and remote-sensing data and calculates several drought indices identifying abnormally dry conditions. These conditions can trigger a range of harmful drought impacts that are typically hard to quantify in monetary terms. To gain a better understanding of past drought impacts across the Alpine region, the Alpine Drought Impact report Inventory (EDIIALPS) was established providing information of more than 3,200 reported impacts classified in various categories. Impacts are diverse, but agriculture and public water supply are most frequent affected sectors. This study uses the categorized impact information as a training dataset for statistical drought impact model development based on predictors from the ADO monitoring indices, incl. the Standardized Indices of precipitation (SPI), atmospheric water deficit (SPEI) or the Vegetation Health Index (VHI). The main aim is to evaluate the capabilities of different model types to predict drought impact occurrence at regions outside the training area and for forecasting in time. Due to seasonal differences of the occurrence of particular impact types, we grouped impacts into soil-moisture drought impacts and hydrological drought impacts. For these impact groups we applied regression models and random forest models predicting from the Northern region to Southern region and from the pre-Alpine region to the high-altitude region and vice versa. In addition, we applied the models to predict from the past to the future. The results suggest considerable potential for spatial prediction, but appear to be weaker for temporal forecasting specifically due to consistent underestimation of upcoming drought events with too few predictions of impact occurrences. This assessment of predictive model performance integrates hydrometeorological, remote-sensing data and reported impact data in various ways and thus, allows to gain a better understanding of the limitations and uncertainty of these coupled natural-human systems. The here developed impact-specific drought models could serve as a risk assessment at pan-Alpine scale, allowing to extrapolate to regions where impact information is scarce and may serve cross-regional learning.
Abstract ID 586 | Date: 2022-09-12 11:00 – 11:12 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS3
Aichinger-Rosenberger, Matthias; Moeller, Gregor; Hohensinn, Roland; Rothacher, Markus
ETH Zürich, Switzerland
Keywords: Gnss, Multi-Purpose Station Networks, Environmental Monitoring, Remote Sensing
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers are very versatile sensors, which have not only revolutionized positioning and navigation applications, but also provide numerous opportunities for environmental monitoring and remote sensing. Beside the monitoring of long-term ground movements and geodynamics, typical applications include the provision of water vapor estimates for numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate studies as well as real-time applications such as seismic and geohazard monitoring. The rising number and quality of low-cost GNSS equipment, coupled with innovative telecommunication approaches (Internet of Things), allow for an increased and more cost-effective usage of such devices for those monitoring purposes.
An especially beneficial approach is the collocation of GNSS sensors at already existing meteorological or seismic stations. Using available infrastructure for power supply and communication, a sustainable and energy-effective extension of existing monitoring capabilities can be achieved. The different parameters collected on-site can be used for cross-validation or provision of corrections for GNSS positioning. Furthermore, through (close to) real-time availability of observations, such collocated stations can aid early-warning systems for many different types of natural hazards (from extreme weather events to landslides and earthquakes). At the Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry at ETH Zürich we develop GNSS instrumentation to equip meteorological stations from the SwissMetNet (SMN). The work is carried out in the course of a pilot study in cooperation with MeteoSwiss.
This contribution shows initial results of the SMN station Zürich-Affoltern (where a first prototype GNSS instrumentation has been installed) as well as from a dedicated station network established in 2021 in the Mattertal, Switzerland. We highlight key capabilities of the network, which include the sustainable enhancement of infrastructure for climate change monitoring in the Alpine region as well as the build-up of early-warning systems for multiple types of geohazards, delivering decision-relevant products to end-users in (near) real-time. The latter might be achieved through the combination of parameters collected on-site with complementary data (e.g. satellite observations or NWP output) using innovative, data-driven approaches. Finally, we showcase examples and the potential of recent and ongoing works using these data-driven approaches.
Abstract ID 905 | Date: 2022-09-12 11:12 – 11:24 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS3
Ros Candeira, Andrea (1); Mellado, Ana (2); Merino Ceballos, Manuel (1); Guerrero Alonso, Pablo David (2); Moreno Llorca, Ricardo (1); Zamora, Regino (1,3)
1: Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research IISTA-CEAMA, Spain
2: LifeWatch-ERIC, Spain
3: Ecology Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Spain
Keywords: Interdisciplinary, Long-Term Monitoring, E-Science, Integrated Observation And Analysis, Open Science
Mountain ecological and socio-economic systems are intrinsically linked with one another via a series of complex interactions and feedback mechanisms, which relationships can be disentangled only by combining interdisciplinary perspectives and integrated observation and analysis. This situation makes the study of mountain socio-ecological systems increasingly complex and multidisciplinary, requiring the use of new technological tools and the necessary statistical and computational skills to appropriately manage large datasets, integrate them into reproducible, open databases, and build up robust models to comprehensively assess the status and trends of mountain biodiversity, climate, and its many contributions to people.
Smart Ecomountains—the Thematic Center on Mountain Ecosystems of the European Research Infrastructure LifeWatch-ERIC (Sierra Nevada, Spain)— adopts this "system thinking" approach by bringing together knowledge from different areas of expertise. The scientific and technical team monitors a diverse suite of ecological, climatic, and socio-economic mountain variables, using in-situ observational sampling, automated instruments, remote sensing surveys, and citizen observations. The data management team coordinates the transfer of data from field sites to the central data center. The team standardizes and automates data collection and processing tasks; stores and processes data; publishes data products in open-access repositories for users to use; and develops relevant operational tools, such as digital monitoring forms and applications to prevent errors and facilitate in-situ data collection. The ICT team develops Virtual Research Environments and Vlabs to facilitate international multidisciplinary research-working environments in which scattered mountain scientists will easily exchange, access, and analyze quality-assured, open-access data through their web browser.
Here, we will present our long-term monitoring programme and share our experience in integrating data of extremely diverse nature (e.g. biological collections, measurements, observational data, meteorological projections, satellite images, etc.). We will also present different tools that we are developing to improve our understanding on mountain social-ecological systems, and support society, managers, and policymakers with scientific-based tools and knowledge to address key mountain challenges.
Abstract ID 679 | Date: 2022-09-12 11:24 – 11:36 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS3
Bavay, Mathias (1); Anderegg, Dionis (2); Bebi, Peter (1,3); Fierz, Charles (1); Fiddes, Joel (1); Frei, Esther R. (1,3); Gröbner, Julian (4); Van Herwijnen, Alec (1); Herzog, Franz (1); Hubert, Markus (8); Jonas, Tobias (1); Lehning, Michael (1,5); Liechti, David (1); Lötscher, Hanspeter (6); Marty, Christoph (1); Phillips, Marcia (1,3); Weber, Rudolf (7)
1: WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF
2: ZHAW Zürcher Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften
3: Climate Change, Extreme Events and Natural Hazards in Alpine Regions Research Centre CERC
4: Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos / World Radiation Center
5: WSL/SLF – EPFL Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences
6: Amt für Natur und Umwelt Graubünden (ANU)
7: Bundesamt für Umwelt BAFU
8: Forstbetrieb der Gemeinde Davos
Keywords: Standardization, Timeseries, Stations, Meteorology, Solar Radiation, Boundary Layer
The Davos Environmental DataSet aims to contain as many timeseries as possible, measured by automatic stations within a radius of a few tens of kilometers around Davos, Switzerland and spanning an altitudinal range of 2500 m. It currently consists of data from around 50 stations with data extending over a period of 25 years with sampling rates ranging from 20 Hz up to hourly as well as daily for one soil temperature timeseries. At least 19 stations have over 20 years of continuous data with many stations offering a ten minute temporal resolution. The measured parameters cover a wide range of topics, from atmospheric boundary layer, solar radiation, mountain meteorology to cryospheric sciences. The raw data provided by several institutions have been standardized into a common format with a common set of parameter names, units and a common metadata standard. Three levels of processing are provided: the standardized raw data, the raw data after removing known periods of invalid data and the data after applying a combination of statistical and physically-based filters. The full processing from the raw data in their original format to the highest processing level is contained in a configuration file, one per station. The MeteoIO pre-processing meteorological library (Bavay and Egger, 2014) generates the dataset in a fully reproducible way (Bavay et al., 2022) after reading this configuration file.
The dataset is designed to answer questions like: Which spatial interpolation method should be used depending on the number of stations and their spatial and altitudinal distribution? What is the impact of mixing high quality sensors with low quality ones? What is the ideal density of stations depending on topography and weather patterns? Is it possible to detect "spatial outliers" such as cold air pools? What are the performances of various gap filling strategies (temporal interpolations, spatial interpolations, parametrizations)? Which correction methods work best for various typical measurement errors and sensor limitations (unventilated sensors, spikes, tilt correction)? This dataset can be used to force models of various mountain processes in research areas such as catchment hydrology, snow cover distribution, snow cover stability, permafrost and soil temperatures modeling as well as to validate those numerical models.
Bavay, M., & Egger, T. (2014). MeteoIO 2.4. 2: a preprocessing library for meteorological data. Geoscientific Model Development, 7(6), 3135-3151.
Bavay, M., Reisecker, M., Egger, T., & Korhammer, D. (2022). Inishell 2.0: semantically driven automatic GUI generation for scientific models. Geoscientific Model Development, 15(2), 365-378.
Abstract ID 725 | Date: 2022-09-12 11:36 – 11:48 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS3
Allchin, Michael; Murray, Maribeth
Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary, Canada
Keywords: Observations, Monitoring, Standards, Systems, Best Practices
The challenges of observing and recording environmental (and other) conditions in mountain landscapes are well established and widely understood. In remote and rugged terrain, demands on human and technical resources, logistical and safety-related expenses, and the risk of damage to equipment, are high. It is therefore considerably more costly to generate datasets in such settings than in most lowland contexts, and data-gathering activities are therefore relatively sparse. This runs counter to the need for greater density of observations in mountainous terrain, to cover the range of conditions arising from the influences of high amplitudes and frequencies of variation in topography and land-surface characteristics. It follows that all such datasets, and particularly those with longer periods of record, have correspondingly high value to researchers and public agencies.
However, the costs incurred by 'primary producers' in mountain-observation ecosystems are often disconnected from the value of resultant datasets to 'top predators'. There are generally few incentives to the former for taking the additional steps involved in publishing and sharing the data they gather. Even where agencies require this as a condition of funding, there may not be a stipulation to conform (for example) to the FAIR / CARE / OCAP principles, which usually imposes additional overheads for implementation and ongoing maintenance: this may negatively affect the discoverability and interoperability of data-products.
Our presentation will present some possible solutions to these challenges, based on reducing the burden for data-generators of publishing and sharing data and metadata. We suggest that this may be achieved by developing systems which simplify and streamline the associated workflows, thereby diminishing associated overheads, whilst improving consumers' options for discovering and accessing data. An overarching goal is to implement innovative approaches to accommodating data from a broad range of topics, disciplines and traditions, including representation of relevant aspects of Traditional Knowledge. We will consider options for ensuring the consistency and credibility of data-products provided by different types of contributor at global scales, through the adoption of standards and development of agreed best practices in each stage of the chain of observational evidence, potentially spanning technical training, operations, data-management and publication protocols. We also aim to encourage discussion of how progress might be made towards a more equitable coverage of the financial aspects of these endeavours, by suggesting possible models for sharing costs between producers and consumers.
Abstract ID 829 | Date: 2022-09-12 11:48 – 12:00 | Type: Oral Presentation | Place: SOWI – Lecture hall HS3
Valdez, Jose; Fernandez, Miguel; Pereira, Henrique
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Germany
Keywords: Tropical Andes, Monitoring, Essential Biodiversity Variables, Ebv, Latin America
Effective and timely conservation and sustainable development policy relies upon high-quality biodiversity information. However, the capacity to generate, integrate, and deliver biodiversity data is a particular challenge, especially in biodiversity hotspots such as the Tropical Andes. Existing efforts suffer from taxonomic, spatial, and temporal biases, inadequate integration, and often remain within the academic context, limiting their access and relevance to stakeholders and policymakers. One approach is through the establishment of a biodiversity observation network (BON) to not only improve the capacity to detect change, but also inform effective conservation and policy. BONs are built on the Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) framework, which allow for the integration of biodiversity data to rapidly quantify the magnitude of biodiversity change across space and time. Using an EBV approach can help identify existing biases and further prioritize data mobilization and modeling efforts. Here, we engaged local partners to help design a Tropical Andes Observatory and identify key spatial, temporal, and thematic gaps to create EBVs that can advance information that meets user needs in the region. By developing a sustained, user-driven, locally operated, harmonized, and scalable regional BON in the Tropical Andes we can bridge the gap between the scientific communities that produce biodiversity information and the stakeholders that utilize this information.
Abstract ID 142 | Date: 2022-09-12 17:45 – 17:47 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden
Zango Palau, Anna (1); Jolivet, Anaïs (2); Claramunt López, Bernat (3)
1: Centre for Research on Ecology and Forestry Applications (CREAF), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
2: Faculty of Biology, Universitat de Barcelona
3: Department of Animal Biology, Plants and Ecology (BAVE), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Keywords: Socio-Ecological System, Mountains, Interdisciplinary Data, Direct And Indirect Effects
Mountain regions provide multiple ecosystem services to human societies, such as water supply or landscape quality. At the same time, they are experiencing environmental and socioeconomic changes, which are impacting ecosystems, natural resources and local livelihoods.
This study applies a Social-Ecological System (SES) approach to the analysis of the upper Segre basin in the Southeastern Pyrenees, with the objective of obtaining an integrated view on its current functioning and interpreting the emerging patterns in terms of sustainability of the system. A total of 17 hydrological, biodiversity, climatic, land-use and remote sensing-derived environmental variables, and of 16 socio-economic variables from the study area, spanning from 2000 to 2020 were first analysed via the construction of 23 complementary path models using subsets of variables. The obtained models were then combined into an integrated social-ecological network depicting the relationships among all 33 variables.
Results indicate that the upper Segre basin SES greatly depends on the services sector ‒ particularly tourism‒ as a factor of economic growth, at the expense of agriculture. Subsides to the agricultural sector have a mild but positive effect on both farmer's salaries and productive cultivated land, but the lack of effect on occupation in this sector indicates subsidies alone have not been enough to promote employment in agriculture in the region. Snow and vegetation greenness are both factors of attraction for visitors, but the former seems to still have more importance for the economy, which may be problematic in the context of climate change. Therefore, diversifying the economy and opting for a less seasonal touristic model should improve the resilience of the system to future changes. Regarding biodiversity, both butterfly diversity and bird richness are negatively affected by roads and cultivated land, linked to habitat loss and fragmentation. Water resources are influenced both by precipitation and snow cover, as well as variables related to domestic consumption and irrigation. In the perspective of an increasingly water-consuming society and decreasing mountain water supplies, avoiding a mismatch between water demand and water availability will be crucial. Our study highlights the importance of having a holistic perspective when studying complex socio-ecological systems, as most socio-economic, environmental and biodiversity variables of our system are connected directly or indirectly to one another. In this context, quantitative analysis like ours become useful tools to better assess the direct and indirect effects among elements.
Abstract ID 903 | Date: 2022-09-12 17:47 – 17:49 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden
Cariñanos, Paloma; Morales-Baquero, Rafael; Reche, Isabel
University of Granada, Spain
Keywords: Aerosols, Saharan Dust, Sierra Nevada
Sierra Nevada (Spain) constitutes the main physical barrier met by Saharan dust traveling to Europe. Saharan dust intrusions and Atlantic fronts that reach Sierra Nevada have clear seasonal, synoptic, and climatic patterns that affect the quantity and quality of the atmospheric deposition. Saharan dust, whose deposition is about 11 g m-2 y-1 in Sierra Nevada, contains a wide variety of soluble ions that supply important elements for biogeochemical cycles such as phosphorus, calcium and iron. The high calcium content, about 39 mmol m-2 y-1, provides an important acid buffer capacity to the water and can supply the needs of vegetation in siliceous soils. Saharan aerosols are also known to transport significant amounts of small soluble organic carbon. Furthermore, billions of viruses and millions of bacteria per square meter and day, attached to Saharan dust particles and marine organic aggregates, are deposited above the atmospheric boundary layer in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. This microbial atmospheric deposition expands their biogeographic ranges and generates a global seed bank of microorganisms to face future environmental changes. In a broader context of bioaerosols, the analysis of pollen content in the air of Sierra Nevada can provide information to assess the intensity of the impact that climate change is exerting on terrestrial ecosystems. Monitoring and characterization of the atmospheric pollen spectrum will allow to identify the origin of the pollen-emitting sources, natural or exotic, local or distant, or transported to the area through different processes of atmospheric dynamics, including Saharan dust events. The intrinsic relationship between pollen emissions and environmental conditions will make it possible to understand the evolutionary dynamics and behavior of terrestrial communities in situations of changeable environmental conditions. The capacity of the pollen grains and sub-particles derived from them to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN), and the impact that this can have on the climate and precipitation of the area are other relevant factors to be considered. In the context of Smart EcoMountains, The Thematic Center on Mountain Ecosystems of LifeWatch-ERIC, we will measure on a weekly basis the wet and dry deposition of atmospheric aerosol and bioaerosols over Sierra Nevada by means of two wet-dry collectors and two Hirst-type samplers installed in the north and south face of Sierra Nevada, integrated in the stations of the Global Change Monitoring Network of the Sierra Nevada National Park.
Abstract ID 744 | Date: 2022-09-12 17:49 – 17:51 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden
Delves, Jess L.
Eurac Research / United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security, Italy
Keywords: Lter, Ltser, Interdisciplinary, Transdisciplinary, Social-Ecological Systems
Interventions aimed at balancing sustainable management of mountain resources and human well-being need a sound scientific basis; this is the rationale behind the establishment of Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites monitoring ecological change. Particularly in the context of global change – of climate, of human societies, of earth's natural processes – long term monitoring is necessary to understand general trends in changes and to discern these from the 'noise' of increasingly extreme events. In the Anthropocene – or rather, the Capitalocene – physicochemical and biophysical changes of the earth's systems cannot be understood as independent from human systems, so influential are they on one another.
Accordingly, in the early 2000s, a growing recognition of the human dimensions of ecological change inspired the integration of the human dimensions in LTER – which, in some new and previously existing sites – became LTSER: Long Term Socio-Ecological Research. In theory, LTSER provides a 'boundary object' for interdisciplinary research, that is, a tool that is adaptable to the needs and constraints of each monitoring site. In practice, integrating social science approaches, concepts and methods in LT(S)ER depends on finding common ground between scientists coming from vastly different schools of thought. In addition, LTSER strives for transdisciplinarity, the transcendence of disciplinary boundaries through the integration of non-scientific stakeholders, their worldviews and approaches. However, existing conceptual frameworks addressing inter- and transdisciplinary research methods are not easily applied when the heterogeneity of global LT(S)ER sites is considered; they are distributed throughout the world in distinctly different ecological, socioeconomic and institutional settings.
Therefore, to understand which barriers to social science's integration researchers encounter, and how these are being overcome, it is useful to explore the current literature on the existing ~80 global LTSER sites. From this, best practices emerge which can inform the better integration of the human dimensions of ecological change in inter- and transdisciplinary LTSER. This presentation will present the results of this literature review and discuss how findings could be applied to two case study mountain LTSER sites in Europe and southern Africa.
Abstract ID 362 | Date: 2022-09-12 17:51 – 17:53 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden
Ospina, Guillermo Andres (1,2); Otero, Joel Tupac (2)
1: INSTITUTO ARGENTINO DE NIVOLOGÍA, GLACIOLOGIA Y CIENCIAS AMBIENTALES-IANIGLA, Argentine Republic
2: UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA
Keywords: Socio-Environmental Change Indicators, Cadaster Records, Land Use Stories, Local Population Dynamics, Projects Impact
In many mountain regions, lack of reliable demographic and other socio-economic data are among the main constrains to make visible and monitoring socio-environmental change processes and its drivers. This situation is related with the underestimated, usually hard to measure, features of disperse "invisible" populations with no census, insecure land tenure expressed in outdated cadaster, land uses without accurate spatial representation, and the interventions of different stakeholders with projects whose effects are not assessed. To prove possible usefulness of available information about the population, land use, land tenure and actor-interventions, our research started in 2020 with the aim of design a set of indicators to identify and measure socio-environmental changes at the local scale through an experimental case study. This case cover 11,000 hectares and 70 plots including different protected areas categories overlapped with private properties dedicated to cattle farming. We explore the interaction among the mentioned variables collecting, systematizing, and analyzing affordable data in secondary institutional sources, and fieldwork in situ with a sample within the community members. In this presentation, we share the results of the case, emphasizing the kind of data collected, methods and feedbacks among the interacting variables, to finally considering the implications and possible applications in the context of Colombian highlands.
Abstract ID 514 | Date: 2022-09-12 17:53 – 17:55 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden
Scholz, Katharina (1); Bremer, Magnus (2); Graus, Martin (3); Hammerle, Albin (1); Karl, Thomas (3); Mayr, Stefan (4); Oberhuber, Walter (4); Rotach, Mathias (3); Schwarz, Michaela (1); Wohlfahrt, Georg (1)
1: Department of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Austria
2: Department of Geography, University of Innsbruck, Austria
3: Department of Atmospheric and Cryospheric Sciences, University of Innsbruck, Austria
4: Department of Botany, University of Innsbruck, Austria
Keywords: Ecosystem Carbon Balance, Ecosystem Water Balance, Eddy Covariance, Sif
Understanding the main interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere, including for example weather and climate feedbacks, is important for climate modeling and predictions. For this, long-term measurements of land-atmosphere exchange of mass and energy and investigating the driving forces are critical. Here, we introduce our recently established research site in Mieming (about 40 km to the west of Innsbruck) where we aim for long-term measurements of micrometeorological and ecophysiological data. The site is located in a ca. 3.25 km2 largely unmanaged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand at about 950 m a.s.l.
The overarching goal is to capture the main components of the ecosystem carbon and water balance and relevant meteorological data. To that end, a 30 m tower was set up which is equipped with meteorological sensors to measure top of canopy precipitation and radiation as well as vertical profiles of air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction. Latent and sensible heat fluxes as well as CO2 and other gas fluxes are estimated continuously using the eddy covariance method below and above the canopy at 2 m and 20 m height, respectively, while certain fluxes are also estimated based on chamber measurements. Additionally, sap flow and radial growth is measured at individual trees and current carbon stocks in soil and vegetation and their changes over time will be quantified. Episodically, drone-based proximal sensing measurements will be made in order to quantify the spatial variability in forest structural and functional attributes. Currently, measurements also include active and passive chlorophyll fluorescence and hyperspectral reflectance.
Overall, measurements at the site take a very holistic approach comparing different methods and including processes at the soil, understory, and canopy level – scaling from single leaf to the extensive ecosystem. For example, data obtained at this site since last year is used in combination with process-based modelling in order to explorer the potential of satellite-based remote sensing of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence as an early warning stress indicator and first results of this approach will be presented.
Abstract ID 904 | Date: 2022-09-12 17:55 – 17:57 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden
Aguayo, Daniel; Sandoval, Pedro; Ruano, Francisca; Pascual, Felipe; Tinaut, Alberto
Universidad de Granada, Spain
Keywords: Scientific Zoological Collection, Biodiversity, Sierra Nevada (Granada-Spain), Smart Ecomountains (Lifewatch-Eric)
Biological collections contain thousands of preserved specimens stored, cataloged, and arranged systematically as a reference for science. These collections act as a source of biodiversity information to determine species morphology, distribution ecological niche, conservation status, evolution, phenology, etc. Also, specimens are used to provide samples of DNA to study relationships (phylogeny), evolutionary processes or ecological processes (i.e. through barcoding). They also act as vouchers to validate scientific observations, including type specimens (used in the description of known species) of obligatory consultation and benchmark in the process of identification, classification and description of new species.
The Scientific Zoological Collection of the University of Granada (Spain) originates in the 1970´s from different projects and research works until today. Since 2010, a management and registration plan for all material, including a specific database, is being carried out in collaboration with other biodiversity databases, particularly GBIF. Specimen records contain an identification, geographic coordinates, distribution maps, associated metadata, and frequently a photo of the species and the list of articles related to that specimen.
Currently, the Scientific Collection database contains 27.654 records corresponding to 126.914 specimens belonging to more than 2.874 species, and about 500 Type and Paratype specimens, most from Sierra Nevada and other Baetica mountains.
Within the context of Smart Ecomountains, the Thematic Center on Mountain Ecosystems of LifeWatch-ERIC (Sierra Nevada, Spain), this zoological collection aims: i) to become a reference center of Southern Iberian mountains, especially for Sierra Nevada; ii) given that some groups are underrepresented, to conduct various harvesting campaigns (particularly for insects) in Sierra Nevada and other Baetic mountains to provide a better geographical and taxonomic coverage; iii) to formally establish connections with other research centers at national and international level; iv) to create a genoteca to ensure subsequent genetic analysis of the material, either by freezing (-20º Celsius) or by inclusion in absolute alcohol.
Abstract ID 838 | Date: 2022-09-12 17:57 – 17:59 | Type: Poster Presentation | Place: SOWI – Garden
Guimarães Gonzalez, Maria Eduarda (2); Nagy, Laszlo (2); Kittel, Timothy (1)
1: University of Campinas, Brazil
2: University of Colorado Boulder, United States of America
Keywords: Temperature, Precipitation, Climate Change, Weather Extremes, Brazil
Climate change presents itself as temporal trends in temperature and precipitation and as weather extremes. Projections of climate change include an increase in temperature, accompanied by regionally varying changes in the quantity and pattern of precipitation. Weather extremes, for example extreme precipitation or drought periods may cause long-lasting impacts on landscapes and in ecological communities; temperature extremes could affect the tolerance of sensitive organisms, and cascade into causing ecosystem level changes. To attribute changes in ecosystem structure and function to climate change or extreme weather events, well-curated accurate climate data are required.
This study will report temporal changes in climate and weather extremes during the period between 1960 and 2021 in a tropical montane forest environment in south-eastern Brazil. We curated data derived from two independent meteorological stations and from additional rain gauge stations from the municipality of Campos do Jordão, over an area of about 290 km2. Data were quality checked and homogenised and the adjusted datasets were used to calculate indices of climate / weather extremes to be reported in this study. The results of temperature-related extremes combined with low precipitation extremes will be used in modelling and empirical studies on ecosystem structure and function and ecosystem services. These indices will be shared with authorities for use in the management of nature conservation and ecosystem services in a conservation area and the information will be made available to neighbouring municipalities for prevention of disaster planning (extreme precipitation in the austral summer and vegetation fires in winter).